You are currently browsing the Management category.
Naps…they really are not just for kids! Dr. Damien Leger, a French sleep researcher, writes that napping should be considered a basic right, not a luxury or an activity to be hidden or derided. He stresses how important they are for those who work nights and/or for those who routinely sleep six or less hours per day, since studies have shown that chronic sleep deprivation is associated with diabetes, depression, cancer, obesity and even an increased risk of death.
Dr. Leger does note there are conditions for taking an effective and successful nap. He advises that it should be limited to 20 minutes (set your alarm!) as anything more might leave you with “sleep drunkenness”, rather than the rejuvenation which is sought. Also, find a safe place to sleep whether it is your desk (it is not necessary to lay down), car or an empty office or workspace.
Research has shown that naps or short periods of sleep increase cognitive performance, reaction time and mood, so take the time and try a nap; you may be thrilled with the results!
Posted 2 years, 12 months ago. Add a comment
An influential of panel of experts gathered by the World Health Organization (WHO) have concluded that drinking coffee regularly could protect against two different types of cancer, uterine and liver, although it is not clear why. As recently as 1991, researchers described coffee as ‘possibly carcinogenic’ with links to some cancers. But since then a large body of research has portrayed coffee (for those who drink it regularly) as a surprising elixir, finding lower rates of heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, neurological disorders and several cancers.
This is very good news since it is estimated that 64 percent of Americans drink at least one cup of coffee per day. Last year a panel of scientists working on the government’s 2015 dietary guidelines said there was “strong evidence” that three to five cups of coffee daily were not harmful and might reduce chronic disease.
A note of caution…the WHO’s cancer agency has announced that drinking extremely hot (150 degrees Fahrenheit or higher, really too hot to drink) coffee or tea may promote esophageal cancer, so do wait a few minutes before taking that first sip.
So go ahead and enjoy that cup or cups of coffee…..
How are you feeling this week….even more tired than usual? That may be due to Daylight Saving Time which occurred this past weekend. As we move the clocks forward, we lose an hour of that so very essential and precious sleep. On March 9 the Wall Street Journal published an article examining the side effects and repercussions of that lost hour (that loss has an even greater impact on shift workers!). To learn more, go to the Wall Street Journal……
Posted 4 years, 4 months ago. Add a comment
Good news for shift workers! The Wall Street Journal is reporting that recent sleep studies have found that 7 hours is the optimal amount of sleep, not 8 as were recommended in the past. One study showed that cognitive performance increased as people got more sleep, reaching a peak at seven hours before starting to decline. Another found the lowest mortality and morbidity with 7 hours. Researchers are also reporting that too much sleep may be as harmful as too little sleep. The new sleep guidelines are expected to be issued in 2015.
Experts agree though that the optimal amount of sleep is what is right for each individual. Learn how you can determine what is right for you and learn more about the new sleep studies..
Social media is proving to be an important tool for employers trying to encourage their employees to participate in Wellness Programs or to achieve weight/health goals. With much of the population looking at text messages, Facebook and Twitter each day, it appears to be the wave of the future.
The question at this point is how it should be used; many companies are coming up with ways it can be the most effective for their employees. Chilton Hospital in New Jersey had tried for years to engage its employees in programs and initiatives aimed at promoting well-being and reducing health care costs. The resulting behavior changes were minor and covered only a small number of employees. Then in 2011, Chilton tried a new approach; they entered a county-wide 100 day fitness challenge where employees from local companies formed teams of 6 and vied to see who could walk the most, lose the most weight and eat the healthiest. Participants logged onto a Facebook-like social network where they reported results and cheered each other on. As an incentive to participate, Chilton did offer a cash reward of $150 each to members of the winning team and $500 to the person who lost the most weight. Ultimately though, money was not the driving force; it was the challenge and online camaraderie that pulled people in.
Another company, incentalHEALTH, surveyed the participants in its own Wellness Program about their use of social media. It found that 90% of them were on Facebook and 81% texted daily. With this information, the company created a model which delivers wellness information via daily coaching texts and a Brag to Facebook feature. Other features being considered are online wellness journals, discussion groups and progress reports that can be shared with others.
There is an ever growing list of services and apps now available (with more and more coming out each day) for those companies interested in promoting wellness through social media. What better way to get people involved and to change unhealthy behaviors than by employing a media that is an integral part of so many their lives?
Posted 7 years, 1 month ago. Add a comment
We’ve written extensively about the challenges many shift workers face as a result of not getting enough sleep. A few new studies provide more insight for those with sleep challenges. Continue Reading…
Posted 7 years, 7 months ago. Add a comment
Many studies have shown that low levels of serotonin are also associated with anger, depression and anxiety. Fluctuations of serotonin levels in the brain, which often occur when someone hasn’t eaten or is feeling stressed, affect brain regions that enable people to regulate anger. So when stressed or hungry, people are often unable to manage their anger. This is especially relevant to shift workers as the stress of working outside regular daytime hours is significant and good eating habits of shift workers are often lacking (self-reported). A new study published September 15, 2011 in the journal Biological Psychiatry has shown that individuals who might be predisposed to aggression were the most sensitive to changes in serotonin depletion.
Do you Learn from your Mistakes?
People who think they will learn from their mistakes have a different brain reaction to mistakes than people who think intelligence is fixed. Jason S. Moser, of Michigan State University, who collaborated on a new study, found that people who think intelligence is malleable say things like, “When the going gets tough, I put in more effort” or “If I make a mistake, I try to learn and figure it out.” On the other hand, people who think that they can’t get smarter will not take opportunities to learn from their mistakes. People who think they can learn from their mistakes did better after making a mistake; they successfully bounced back after an error. Their brains also reacted differently, producing a bigger second signal, the one that says “I see that I’ve made a mistake, so I should pay more attention” Moser says.
Dealing with People on a Power Trip?
Individuals in roles that possess power but lack status have a tendency to engage in activities that demean others. The experiment demonstrated that “individuals in high-power/low-status roles chose more demeaning activities for their partners than did those in any other combination of power and status roles.” It feels bad to be in a low status position and the power that goes with that role gives these workers a way to take action on those negative feelings.
Â©2011 Circadian Age, Inc. â€˜Working Nightsâ€™
Posted 7 years, 9 months ago. Add a comment
Read on if you are interested in identifying whether you might have heart disease, learn about a possible new way to treat sleep apnea, or hear more about sleep disorders…….
Posted 7 years, 10 months ago. Add a comment
Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in the United States and other developed countries. Cardiac events are more common in winter, at the beginning of each month, on Mondays (in working people), and during the early morning hours of each day. Between 6 a.m. and noon, there is a 40% higher risk of heart attack, a 29% increased risk of cardiac death, and a 49% increased risk of stroke (if these events were evenly distributed throughout the day).
Several studies have reported a higher prevalence of coronary risk factors among rotating shift workers, including increased cigarette consumption, higher blood pressure, and increased cholesterol and blood sugar levels. Each of these risk factors can be controlled with lifestyle adjustments.
Posted 7 years, 10 months ago. Add a comment
Our contact with shift workers indicates that they tend to spend a lot of time alone. The schedules shift workers are on are often not conducive to a lot of togetherness with family and friends. We often write about the need for shift workers to stay in touch and find time for recreation with others. Recently there have been several studies about the importance of time spent alone. Solitude has been linked with creativity, spirituality, and intellectual insight for decades. Now studies are showing that we remember things better when we are alone. Taking time for self-reflection is a good thing; being surrounded by others can hamper a person’s efforts to figure out what he or she really thinks of something. Perhaps shift workers’ time alone allows them time to know themselves more truly than other do.
Posted 8 years, 4 months ago. Add a comment
We’ve reported on this in the past……however more information is available. According to a new study in the Feb. 2 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience, during sleep the brain preferentially retains the memories that are most relevant. Researchers set up two experiments to test memory retrieval. In the first experiment, people were asked to learn 40 pairs of words and in the second, participants played a card game where they matched pictures of animals and objects. In both groups, half the volunteers were told that they would be tested in 10 hours. However, all participants were tested later on how well they recalled their tasks.
It turned out that the people who slept and knew a test was coming had substantially improved memory recall. Sleep was critical to memory enhancement. There was an increase in brain activity during deep or “slow wave” sleep in those volunteers knew they would be tested for memory recall.
This should interest managers caring that employees retain on the job and other training. Safety, human resource, and facility managers might consider fatigue management training to ensure employees are fully aware of the benefits of sleep for themselves and the workplace.
The researchers think that the brain’s prefrontal cortex focuses on memories viewed as relevant while awake and the hippocampus consolidates these memories during sleep.
This is another study that points to the importance sleep to memory retention – something shift workers and their managers should really care about.
Posted 8 years, 5 months ago. Add a comment
Sleep plays a crucial role in the development of memoriesâ€¦.but lack of sleep may actually help you put your bad experiences aside!
Researchers showed healthy volunteers video clips of both safe driving and unexpected motor vehicle accidents. After viewing the clips, half of the volunteers were deprived of sleep while the other half received a normal night’s sleep. Sleep deprivation eliminated the fear-associated memories. The researchers suggest this may be due to the lack of memory consolidation that typically occurs during sleep.
So, if you’re not looking forward to unsettling holiday parties, stressful family events, too much overtime work, or dealing with the loss of a loved one – take it easy. But don’t be too focused on getting extra sleep. A little sleep deprivation may be a good thing. Just make sure you’re rested enough that you’re ready for what you need to do, whether work or play!
Happy Holidays from WorkingNights.
©2010 Circadian Age, Inc. ˜Working Nights”
Posted 8 years, 7 months ago. Add a comment
Recently, the topic of bullying has hit the headlines in a big way. Painful stories of persecuted, harassed, and tormented high school and college students who have committed suicide, have shocked educators, parents, students, and the public-at-large. The emotional, verbal, and physical abuse that constitutes bullying is not anything new. But recent attention to adolescents’ cyber-bullying (e.g. harassing others using Facebook, Twitter, or Utube or by cell phone or e-mail) has taken concerns about protecting victims to a new level.
Last month the federal government told educators that civil rights laws obligated schools to prevent bullying. The ‘Dear Colleague’ letter sent by the Department of Education to school administrators puts into clear words the fact that educators have a legal obligation to protect students from student-on-student racial and national origin harassment, sexual and gender-based harassment, and disability harassment. As a result, school districts and colleges around the country are cracking down on those students who terrorize and intimidate others who are supposed to be their peers. Society and workplaces change over time (Pynes 2009). Will the recent attention to student bullying have strategic management implications for the workplace? Clearly it will for schools. But, what will be the impact be to other employers?
Posted 8 years, 8 months ago. Add a comment
So much of work these days is team based, requiring groups of diverse people to work together on complex or risky initiatives. Consider the challenges that shift working groups face like workers overseeing our nuclear power safety, emergency medical teams, miners working deep underground, shift workers on oil rigs around the world…How can work be any more complex or risky than in these environments?
A recent study co-authored by MIT, Carnegie Mellon University, and Union College researchers, and published Sept. 30, in the advance online issue of the journal Science, addresses the cognitive capabilities of a team, as opposed to the intelligence of individuals. The study found that collective intelligence among groups of people who cooperate well is linked to the number of women in the group. The researchers reported that groups whose members had higher levels of “social sensitivity” were more collectively intelligent. The teams containing more women demonstrated greater social sensitivity and in turn greater collective intelligence.
So what is meant by the term socially sensitive? In the case of this study, it meant discerning emotions from looking at peoples’ faces. For an excellent book that will help you to improve your ability to read peoples’ faces, look up Emotions Revealed by psychologist Paul Ekman. The book shows how the following emotions are revealed through facial expression (including photos!).
1. Grief, sadness
4. Contentment, Enjoyment, sensory pleasures
6. Disgust, contempt
Interestingly, the average and maximum intelligence of individual group members did not significantly predict the performance of their groups overall. Having a lot of smart people in the group didn’t automatically cause the group to rise to the top. In the study, 699 people were placed in groups with two to five members. The groups worked together on tasks ranging from puzzles to negotiations, brainstorming, games and complex rule-based assignments. Only later, when analyzing the data, did the researchers notice that the number of women in a group seemed to predict higher functioning teams.
Obviously, many men are also socially sensitive. The study researchers stated that they believed that having group members with higher social sensitivity is better regardless of whether they are male or female. Perhaps it would be good to study the social sensitivity of shift workers. After adjusting for the impact of sleep deprivation, shift workers are probably a pretty socially sensitive group. After all, it takes a certain amount of social smarts to work 24/7 and stay safe and healthy and connected with family and friends. And, these jobs do require a heightened amount of teamwork for success.
©2010 Circadian Age, Inc. ˜Working Nightss’
Posted 8 years, 9 months ago. Add a comment
The fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) won’t be published by the American Psychiatric Association APA) for a few years (May 2013). However, developing the roadmap of psychiatric diagnoses is a huge initiative as feedback is being sought from over 600 global experts. The DSM provides the standard classification of mental disorders used by mental health and other health professionals for diagnostic and research purposes. In addition, insurance companies use the DSM diagnoses to determine which psychiatric conditions will be covered by health insurance.
Over the years since the last DSM was published (1994), new research has been published on many psychiatric conditions. New research leads to new opinions on the identification and treatment of disorders. Sleep disorders, many of which often plague shift workers, have received a significant amount of attention in recent years and as a result, the current draft of the DSM-5 includes information that shift workers and their employers should be aware of. The recommendations for revisions to the DSM are posted on the APA’s web site for the manual www.DSM5.org. Public review and written comments are welcome. Comments will be reviewed and considered by the DSM-5Work Groups.
The sleep disorder work group is recommending greater inclusion of sleep disorders. This is being proposed primarily as a way to educate non-expert sleep clinicians (such as psychiatrists and general medical physicians) about sleep disorders that have mental as well as medical/neurological aspects.
Among the changes being recommended the significant ones impacting shift workers include:
1. Adding obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome to the DSM-5: this disorder was previously contained under the sleep disordered breathing category. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with snoring, obesity, increased waist girth, and male gender. Central sleep apnea is most strongly associated with advanced age, heart failure, and diabetes. Cardiac problems associated with obstructive and central apnea are different.
- Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with ventricular ectopy which is often experienced as a strong or skipped heart beat resulting from abnormal electrical activation originating in the ventricles (heart’s lower chambers) before a normal heartbeat would occur. Studies have indicated that sleep apnea promotes ventricular ectopy.
- Central sleep apnea is more strongly associated with atrial fibrillation. During atrial fibrillation, the heart’s two upper chambers (the atria) quiver instead of beating effectively. Blood isn’t pumped completely out of the chambers, so it may pool and clot. If a piece of a blood clot in the atria leaves the heart and becomes lodged in an artery in the brain, a stroke results. About 15 percent of strokes occur in people with atrial fibrillation.
People with coronary artery disease whose blood oxygen is lowered by sleep disordered breathing may be at risk of ventricular arrhythmias and nocturnal sudden death. CPAP treatment may reduce this risk. Sleep disordered breathing, including apnea, may cause coronary artery disease and hypertension.
2. Adding primary central sleep apnea to the DSM-5. See 1. above. Point is to separate obstructive and central sleep apnea as the risk factors and outcomes for each are different.
3. Adding restless leg syndrome to the DSM-5. According to the DSM web site the rationale is that RLS is a sufficiently common syndrome to merit elevation to an independent category. In national and international studies the prevalence of RLS appears to be between 7-10% of the population, depending upon age and gender.
4. Including circadian rhythm, delayed sleep phase, advanced sleep phase, irregular sleep wake rhythm and free-running sleep disorders in the DSM-5 as separate subtypes. The rationale for this proposed change is based on new data indicating not only the differences in clinical characteristics, but also the underlying pathophysiology and in some cases, genetic basis for the different types of circadian rhythm sleep disorders.
To read more about other primary sleep disorders, follow the links below:
Primary Sleep Disorders
307.42 Primary Insomnia307.44 Primary Hypersomnia 347.00 Narcolepsy 327.3x Circadiam Rhythm Sleep Disorder 307.47 Nightmare Disorder
©2010 Circadian Age, Inc. ˜Working Nights”
Posted 8 years, 10 months ago. Add a comment